In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces

Types of forces

  1. Gravitational force (between particles with mass)
  2. electromagnetic (between particles with charge/magnetism)
  3. strong nuclear force (between quarks)
  4. weak nuclear force (that changes quark types)


Gravity or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.•

On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon’s gravity causes the ocean tides.

•An invisible force that pulls objects toward each other. So, the closer objects are to each other, the stronger their gravitational pull is.

•The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the Universe caused it to begin coalescing and forming stars and caused the stars to group together into galaxies, so gravity is responsible for many of the large-scale structures in the Universe.

•Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker as objects get further away. •

In SI units, G has the value 6.67 × 10^-11 Newtons kg^-2m².


Difference Between Gravitation and gravity is that Gravitation can be an attractive force or repulsive force but gravity is always an attraction force.


•Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

•The electromagnetic force is carried by electromagnetic fields composed of electric fields and magnetic fields, and it is responsible for electromagnetic radiation such as light.

•It is one of the four fundamental interactions (commonly called forces) in nature, together with the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

•Electromagnetic forces are responsible for the chemical bonds between atoms which create molecules.

•All of the light from the Sun and other sources consists of photons which are the electromagnetic force carriers. • Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun’s photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. • They are regions of reduced surface temperature caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux.

Electromagnets are very widely used in electric and electromechanical devices, including

•Motors and generators. •Transformers. •Pickups. •Relays. •Electric bells •Loudspeakers •headphones.etc


•In nuclear physics and particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force, and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

•At the range of 10−15 m. The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles.

•Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation.

•The strong interaction is mediated by the exchange of massless particles called gluons that act between quarks, antiquarks, and other gluons. As its name suggests,

•the strong force is the strongest—it’s 100 times stronger than the electromagnetic force

•(which binds electrons into atoms), 10,000 times stronger than the weak force (which governs radioactive decay), and a hundred million million million million million million (1039) times stronger than gravity.

Artificially,the energy associated with the nuclear force is partially released in nuclear power and nuclearweapons, both in uranium or plutonium-based fission weapons and in fusion weapons likethe hydrogen bomb.


•The weak interaction, which is also often called the weak force or weak nuclear force, is the mechanism of interaction between subatomic particles that is responsible for the radioactive decay of atoms.

•The weak interaction participates in nuclear fission, and the theory describing it

•in terms of both its behaviour and effects is sometimes called quantum flavourdynamics (QFD).

•The effective range of the weak force is limited to subatomic distances, and is less than the diameter of a proton.

• Beta decay is just one example of the weak force.

•During beta decay a neutron disappears and is replaced by a proton, an electron and a neutrino (anti-electron).

•Without the weak force, the sun would cease to exist. It is the only interaction that can change one kind of quark into another or its flavor.

• A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. •Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.

•It is the only interaction that violates P or parity-symmetry.

• A parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate. In three dimensions, it can also refer to

•the simultaneous flip in the sign of all three spatial coordinates.



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