TIME TRAVEL & WORMHOLES – myth or truth


At present, we are changing according to the time. Time not change according to us. But what if we change the time. Time travel An imaginary thought.

We don’t know if It will be future or past. It is like changing time’s direction to past or increasing time’s speed to future, but if it will be possible in the future, It may be travel to past.

According to relativity, Nothing can travel faster than light (3 × 10⁸m/sec.). At light speed, mass will be infinite (according to relativistic mass formula) . And the length of object will be zero (according to length contraction formula). But if we travel with the light speed, what can we see? Is there any color? Is there any boundary of anything? Only white light appears on moving with light speed. Everything is white.

At present, black holes are the best source to see the past. Where, light cannot even pass through. The body’s shape , space-time will be changed at light speed . 

Even if we travel with such a high-speed it will take 2000 years in reaching and coming back to Earth from a thousand light years away star(or any Terrestrial body in space). When you travel such a large distance, an atom, the smallest unit of matter also traveled to that distance, and it is amazing to imagine.


According to scientists, a wormhole is a cylindrical path between two heavy bodies in space. It is not from any science fiction movie. It is scientist’s thoughts. 

Wormhole forms by two giant bodies have very high gravity value like black holes. If a path is a thousand light years long, wormholes can make it a few million miles long. So, it may be a possibility to travel faster than light.

In 1835, Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen called them Einstein-Rosen Bridge. Bridge that connects two, bodies that are light years far away from each others.

Worm holes are like tunnels in space connecting to distant bodies because space and time are flexible (according to Einstein). Through the wormholes we can cover very long distance in a very short period.

According to another theory we can travel with light speed. The theory proposed that, if we are stable and space can move. In this theory, a large heavy body contract the space with fast and alternately a negative mass, behind the large body, can expand that contracted space.

Negative mass is only a hypothetical Idea. It behaves just opposite of positive mass that we have.

Positive mass can contract the space while a negative mass can expand it. Due to this, we remain stable on a position and space can move.

If all this phenomena possible, we can cover large distance with speed of light by stay at a place without any change.

To be continue…

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EMPHYSEMA – Medical condition 002


Emphysema is a lungs disease.it is develops after many years of continue smoking. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are relate to a group of lung disease that known as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Emphysema is a condition which is damage the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs. This is located in the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs.

A normal lungs is consist of about 300 million alveoli. when you are take a breath in the air and alveoli stretch drawing oxygen in and transporting it to the blood. When you exhale, the alveoli shrink, and carbon dioxide out of the body.

The alveoli and lung tissue are destroyed when the emphysema is develops .The tubes collapse and cause an Obstruction that trap air inside the lungs sometimes are fewer alveoli, less oxygen will be transport into the bloodstream.


Any types of smoke such as cigarette, cigar is a major cause of emphysema. if you are inhel this types smoke, and you will suffer chronic diseases.


●Shortness of breath during physical activity.
• Coughing and wheezing.
• Long term mucus production.
• Fatigue


• Pulmonary Rehabilitation
• Surgery and lung transplant
• Oxygen therapy


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TUMOR – friend or enemy ?

A Deadly tumor is called brain cancer. they grows sharply and often strike or mob healthy areas of the brain.

Tumour is either be benign and malignant.

Malignant is cancerous

Benign brain tumors have not consist cancer cells and are usually slow growing.

Brain tumors are two different types. primary or metastatic.

Primary brain tumors start within the brain.

A metastatic tumor is made when cancer cells situated elsewhere in the body break down away and travel to the brain.

For this reason, metastatic brain tumors are nearly every time malignant, while primary brain tumors may be benign or deadly.

Brain tumors are arranged in classes or categories based on where the tumor is situated , the type of tissue involved .

the tumor is benign or deadly , and other factors. If a tumor is laid down malignant.

The tumor cell is examined by a microscope to determine how malignant they are.

Based on this analysis, tumors are rated, or graded, where level of malignancy from least to most malignant.

Factors that determine the tumor grade include how quickly the cells are growing, how much blood is supplying the cells, the presence of dead cells in the middle of the tumor (necrosis), if the cells are finit to a specific area, and how similar the cancerous cells are not normal cells.


• Blurred vision
• Headache
• Loss of balance
• Seizures
• Tingling and stiffness


* Pineal tumor
• Astrocytomas
• Acoustic neuroma
• Choroid plexus papilloma
• Vascular tumors
• Chordomas
• Ependymomas
• Craniopharyngiomas
• Schwannomass
• Ganglioneuromas
• Meningiomas
• Glioblastoma multiforme
• Gliomas
• Oligodendroglioma
• Pituitary adenomas
• Primitive neuroectodermal


Brain tumor are remove by surgery and other way like radiation therapy and chemotherapy, target therapy.

to be continue…



Understanding the concept of LIGHT SOUND


Anything we hear around us is not is sound but vibration of particles. Vibration is a type of disturbance which propagates by particles of medium.

Sound is not travel but it is a wave that is transferred by particles in the form of vibrations (particles can only transfer the vibrations by one particle to second and 2nd to 3rd and so on by remain their positions).

Without particles, sound has no existence. Sound not travel in space because there are no particles in space. , so we transfer the information in form of signal in space.

Speed of sound in different mediums

Air – 343m/sec

Water – 1437m/sec

Glass – 4540m/sec

Iron – 5120m/sec

According to this, as the medium density increases sound speed also increases.

Effect of temperature- As temperature increases speed of sound increases.

The normal range of sound to hear anything for human is 20hz to 20000hz.

But minimum range of sound which a human can hear is 12hz and maximum is 28000hz.

The sound created by a volcano eruption in 1883 is in range of 180decibel and it can be heard up to 3000 miles (ca. 4,828 km).

the sound created by the explosion of nuclear bomb is in range of 240 to 280+ decibels.

So, we cannot imagine what will be the loudest sound.


Light energy is a traveling Photon which is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Photon is a bundle of energy. 

Speed of light is 3 × 10⁸m/sec. in vacuum. 

As dense as the medium the speed of light will decrease.

Nature of light-

Light has dual nature

1- wave nature- we consider the light have wave nature because light has the property of diffraction, refraction, and interference etc.

2-particle nature- light has particle nature because it emits electrons when it strikes on metal surface called Photoelectric effect.

mass of photon is zero.

Formation of light energy -when we provide heat to an object it is start to emit photons.

The number of emitting photons, depending on temperature of the object. 

Photon having a special property that they can never exist in stable form. They start to travel since their formation.

Intensity of light inversely proportional to square of source distance.

7 properties of light – 

reflection, diffraction ,refraction ,polarization, interference ,dispersion, scattering.

Visible light is made up of seven colors known as VIBGYOR.

V – Violet 

I – Indigo

B – blue

G – green 

Y – yellow 

O – orange 

R – red

Where red light has the longest wavelength while violet light has the shortest wavelength.


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The sun is a star, a hot ball of glowing gases at the heart of our solar system. It is the largest object and contains approximately 99% of the total solar system mass.

Its gravity holds the solar system together, keeping everything from the biggest planets to the smallest particles of debris in its orbit. 

The Sun’s outer visible layer is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000°C (11,000°F). 

the sun’s visible surface sometimes has dark sunspots, which are areas of intense magnetic activity that can lead to solar explosion.

The Sun’s period of rotation at the surface varies from approximately 25 days at the equator to 36 days at the poles. Deep down, below the convective zone, everything appears to rotate with a period of 27 days

Solar energy is created deep within the core of the Sun. It is here that the temperature (15,000,000° C; 27,000,000° F) and pressure (340 billion times Earth’s air pressure at sea level) is so intense that nuclear reactions take place

The connection and interactions between the Sun and Earth drive the seasons, ocean currents, weather, climate, radiation belts and aurorae. Though it is special to us, there are billions of stars like our Sun scattered across the Milky Way galaxy.

Average diameter: 864,000 miles, about 109 times the size of the Earth.

Mass: 1.989e+30

Rotation period at equator: About 27 days.

Rotation period at poles: About 36 days.

mean density: 1.410 (gm/cm^3)

Surface temperature: 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

Composition: Hydrogen, helium, Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, iron, silicon, magnesium, sulfur etc

to be continue……


DO THINGS HAVE COLOUR ? How can we see colours

Anything we see around us that have colours are not actually colours but photons travels with different frequencies and our eyes detect that frequencies in form of colours.

How photons travels with different frequencies-

Electrons are revolve around the nucleus in different shells in an atom.

Every particular electron revolve in an particular shell. When photon collide with electrons, the electron absorb the energy of photon.

By absorbing the photon energy, the electron goes to the next energy shell for a short time of period (10^-8 sec)
The electron goes to the next energy shell called excited state.

After 10^-8 sec in excited state, the electron come back to it’s original energy shell called ground state.
When electron come back to ground state, it release the energy of photon which is absorbed by it. It release photon in a particular frequency range. And the whole process is continuous.

The released photon strike on our eyes. The light receptors in eyes can transmit the message to brain and brain can detect the this in form of colour and make an image of that object so that we can see an object which has colour.

There are more than 10 million colour detected.

Black and white are not colour because black is form when all the light Ray’s or all the photons can be absorbed and white is formed when all the light Ray’s are reflected from the surface.

Anything which is transparent can pass all the light Ray’s through it and would be invisible if 100% light rays can pass through it which strike on it.
The range of visible light is 380 – 700nanometer(nm).
And all the colours we can see have in the range of visible light.

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• Father of Genetics Gregor Johann Mendel.
• Correct structure of DNA was first deduced by James Watson and Francis Crick (1953).
• Structure unit of DNA Gene
. Johannsen was the first person who coined the term gene in 1909.
• Unit of inheritance Gene
• Number of genes in human genome 50,000-100, 000
• Most important intermediary molecule for gene expression RNA
• Best known and most common chromosomal Abnormality – Dawn’s syndrome (trisomy21)
• Only viable monosomy in human beings Turner’s syndrome
• Most common translocation in chromosomes of human being – Robert sonian translocation
• Commonest hereditary bleeding disorder – Hemophilia
• Commonest x-linked gene disorder – Rad – green color blindness
• Most important process required for inheritance – Reproduction
• Only known condition which is Y- linked – Hairy pinna in male
• All cells in the body contain 46 chromosomes except – Gametes ( sex cells) which contain 23 chromosomes.
• Most important excretory organ of the body – Kidney
• Nephrons is the structural and functional unit of kidney
• Number of nephrons in each kidney – 1 million
• Testes is the primary sex organ in male.
• Longest duct of male reproductive system – Duct of epididymis
• ovaries is the primary sex organ in female.
• Largest accessory gland – prostate gland (male)
• Strongest smooth muscle in the body – uterine muscle
• Most sensitive part of male external genitalia Glans of penis
• Most common cancer of female reproductive system – carcinoma cervix.

to be continue..

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ATOM – smallest unit of life




  • 2.1 NEUTRON

  • 2.2 PROTON

  • 2.3 ELECTRON







Atom is smallest unit of matter. Every state of matter contain atoms and atom contain electrons, protons and neutrons.

According to some theories the protons, electrons and neutrons are made up by small particles called quarks. And quarks are supposed to be smallest particles


neutron is a part of nucleus and have no charge so it is neutral.

Only hydrogen atom not have any neutron.


proton is a positive charge particle stable in nucleus with neutrons


electron is a negative charge particle revolve around the nucleus. the electron would not be stable in nucleus because it does not emit enough energy to be a part of nucleus.


Protons and neutrons are in stable state in nucleus and the electrons revolve around the nucleus.

Neutrons and protons together called nucleons

The number of proton is called atomic number and the sum of number of proton, neutrons called mass number.


Protons have positive charge and electrons have negative charge so electrons attracted toward nucleus by electromagnetic force while neutrons are neutral.so that electrons revolve around the nucleus.

An atom is neutral in charge because the number of protons and electrons in atom are equal.

If the number of electrons are greater then protons, the atom have negative charge or if the electrons are removed from atom, the atom is positively charged. such charged atoms are called ions.


The approximate diameter of atom is 1 x 10^-10m to 5 x 10^-10m and aproximate diameter of neucleus of atom is 1 x 10^-15m.

the shape of an atom is not perfectly sphere but is ellipsoid. mostly atom’s shape atom’s shape is prolate or oblate.

Mass of proton = 1.67262 × 10 −27 kg

mass of electron = 9.11 x 10 -28 kg

mass of neutron = 1.674×10−27 kg

About 99.9% mass of an atom contains in nucleus.


Mostly stable atoms have equal number of protons and neutrons. The electrons present in outer shell of atom called valence electron.

Inert gases have most stable configuration because the outermost shell of inert gases is completely filled. The valency shell with numbers of electron 2, 8, 18, 32,… are supposed be most stable.

According to another theory, atoms are most stable with number of neucleons 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82 and 126. These numbers are also called magic numbers.


If larger nucleus splits into smaller nuclei, called nuclear fission or if two smaller nuclei combine to make larger nuclei, called nuclear fusion (e.g. in sun, Hydrogen converts into Helium by nuclear fusion).