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BLACK HOLE – An unsolved mystery

Firstly Blackhole is not is hole.
It is a neutron star.

A Black hole formed when a star dies. The dead star firstly expand due to supernova and then squeeze or contract toward its core due to its high gravitational pull.
Due to this high contraction the electrons of atoms come near to protons in nucleus and become neutral. So that it is called neutron star.

This information is based on some famous theories.
According to some theories the size of a black hole can be as small as just one atom and big as 75 billion miles in diameter.

Currently the smallest known black hole is only 20 km in diameter and have mass equivalent approximetely 3.4 solarmass.
(1 solarmass= 1.8×10³⁰kg).

One teaspoonfull of black hole matter has equivalent mass of one earth. Because it is so dense.

The spin of black hole on its axis is nearly 3000 times faster then earth.
The inside temperature of black hole is very low about 1/10¹⁴kelvin while the outside temperature is very high.

The gravitational pull of black hole is very high. So it bends the space. Due to this bend in space, even light can not pass through a black hole (because light has the property to the travel in straight line).

Anything can never be fall in black hole directly. Due to black hole’s high spin, the object that fall in black hole rotate with a very high speed around it.

Even everything not fall in the black hole because due to high spin, and because of this the centrifugal force increases.
Due to increment in centrifugal force some mass can escape the gravitational pull of black hole.

If anything falls in blackhole, the body rotating and start to stretch toward its surface.
The body Stretch because gravity attract it toward the surface and high spin and high centrifugal force oppose this attraction. So both the phenomena of moving and attracting occur at same time and then the body get stretched.
Because of these phenomena, the form of body changes and it cannot remain stable.

If you fall into a blackhole, the time moves slowly for you due to bend in the space.

Mostly every galaxies has black hole in middle. Our galaxy(the milky way) also has a giant black hole in its middle.

Black holes cannot be observe or seen directly because they are black. They are observed by the radiation and stars moving around them.

Nearest found black hole to our solar system is HR 6819 and it is only 1000 light year away.
(Light year is the distance that travelled by light in one year with speed 3 lakh km/sec).

To come out from a black hole as impossible as to climbing on a waterfall from bottom to top by a boat.

to be continue……..

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ELECTRIC CURRENT

Current is a flow of electric charge carriers , usually electrons or electron deficient atoms.

the common symbol for current is the uppercase letter I

S.I. unit is ampere

electric current can either be direct or alternating current, means DC or AC

ALTERNATING CURRENT

an electric current that reverses its direction many times a second at regular intervals, typically used in power supplies.

AC current can be produced by rotating a coil of wire in magnetic field.

DIRECT CURRENT

An electric current flowing in one direction only.

a battery is a prime example of DC power

direct current may flow through a conductor such as a wire but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams.

to be continue….

this is brief introduction about electric current, we’ll update more information soon.

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AGES & STAGES – prenatal to adult

Prenatal – before birth

Newborn – 0 to 2 months

Infant – 2 month to 1 year

Toddler – 1 year to 3 year

Preschooler – 3 to 6 year

Child – 6 to 9 year

Tween – 9 to 12 year

Teen – 13 to 19 year

Adolescence – 19 to 21 year

Adult – 21 – 39 year

Middle adulthood – 39 to 65 years

Late adulthood – 65 years

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clothes

MOON – A Brief Introduction

The earth has only one natural satellite called moon. It is also called dead satellite.
Moon’s gravity is just 1/6 of earth’s gravity. It is only 1.62m/s².

A large size terrestrial body collide with earth 4.53 billion years ago and a large piece of earth is separate and revolve in orbit around earth. Now that large piece is our moon.

Due to moon’s less gravity, there is no atmosphere on the moon because the escape velocity of atmospheric particle is greater than the escape velocity of moon and due to this the atmospheric particle escape out of moon’s gravitational pull.

Moon’s escape velocity is only 2.38km/sec while earth’ escape velocity is 11.19km/sec.

Moon complete one revolution of earth in just 29.4 days While earth can complete one revolution of sun in 365.25 days.
Moon can complete one revoution on its axis in 27.3 days.

Earth’s one day time 23 hours and 56 minutes. This is the cause of leap year.

According to some theories if moon does not exist then earth’s day time would be approximately 6 to 10 hours. So moon increase earth’s day time.

Moon’ gravity cause tides in sea.

Thousands of asteroid and comets was collides with moon’s surface and cause craters on its surface. You can see these craters from earth by telescope.

The first living animal land on the moon surface was a dog name Laika on 3 November 1957.
And The man who took the first steps on the moon’s surface on july 20, 1969, was named Neil Armstrong .

Neil Armstrong and aldrin walked on surface of the moon.

Radius of the moon is approximately 1,738 km Earth to moon distance is 384400kms.
Light can take 1.2 second to reach the moon from earth.

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COUNTRIES AND THEIR CURRENCIES – part 1

list of some famous countries and their currencies

WRITE DOWN YOUR CURRENCY IN COMMENT SECTION

  1. Afghanistan – Afghan afghani
  2. Algeria – Dinar
  3. Argentina – Peso
  4. Australia – Australian dollar
  5. Bahrain – Bahrain dinar
  6. Bangladesh – Taka
  7. Belgium – European Euro
  8. Bhutan – Ngultrum
  9. Brazil – Real
  10. Bulgaria – Lev
  11. Cambodia – Riel
  12. Canada – Canadian dollar
  13. Central African Republic – CFA Franc
  14. Chile – Chilean Peso
  15. Colombia – Colombian Peso
  16. Costa Rica – Colón
  17. Cuba – Cuban Peso
  18. Denmark – Danish Krone
  19. Dominican Republic – Dominican Peso
  20. Egypt – Egyptian pound
  21. Ethiopia – Birr
  22. Finland – markka
  23. France – French franc
  24. Georgia – Lari
  25. Germany – Deutsche mark
  26. Ghana – Cedi
  27. Greece – drachma
  28. Hungary – Forint
  29. Iceland – Icelandic króna
  30. India – Indian Rupee
  31. Indonesia – Rupiah
  32. Iran – Rial
  33. Iraq – Iraqi Dinar
  34. Ireland – european euro
  35. Israel – Shekel
  36. Italy – lira
  37. Jamaica – Jamaican dollar
  38. Japan – Yen
  39. Jordan – Jordanian dinar
  40. Kazakhstan – Tenge
  41. Kenya – Kenya shilling
  42. Korea – Won
  43. Kuwait – Kuwaiti Dollar
  44. Liberia – Liberian dollar
  45. Malaysia – Ringgit
  46. Maldives – Rufiyaa
  47. Malta – Euro
  48. Mauritius – Mauritian rupee
  49. Mexico – Mexican peso
  50. Myanmar – kyat
  51. Nepal – Nepalese rupee
  52. Netherlands – guilder
  53. Nigeria – Naira
  54. Norway – Norwegian krone
  55. Oman – Omani rial
  56. Pakistan – Pakistani rupee
  57. Peru – Peruvian sol
  58. Philippines – Peso
  59. Poland – Zloty
  60. Portugal – Euro
  61. Qatar – Qatari riyal
  62. Romania – Romanian leu
  63. Russia – ruble
  64. Saudi Arabia – riyal
  65. Serbia – Serbian Dinar
  66. Singapore – singapore dollar
  67. South Africa – rand
  68. Spain – peseta
  69. Sri Lanka -Sri Lankan rupee
  70. Sudan – Sudanese Pound
  71. Sweden -Krona
  72. Switzerland – Swiss franc
  73. Syria – Syrian pound
  74. Tajikistan – somoni
  75. Thailand -Baht
  76. Turkey – Turkish lira
  77. Uganda – Ugandan new shilling
  78. Ukraine – Hryvnia
  79. United Arab Emirates – U.A.E. Dirham
  80. United Kingdom – pound
  81. United States of America – dollar
  82. Venezuela – Bolivar
  83. Vietnam – dong
  84. Zimbabwe – United States dollar

TO BE CONTINUE….

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WRITE DOWN YOUR CURRENCY IN COMMENT SECTION

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THE PERIODIC TABLE

here is a list of 118 element of periodic table

1
2
H
He
Hydrogen
Helium
3Lilithium
4Beberyllium
5BBoron
6CCarbon
7NNitrogen
8OOxygen
9FFluorine
10NeNeon
11NaSodium
12MgMagnesium
13AlAluminium
14SiSilicon
15Pphosphor
16SSulfur
17ClChlorine
18ArArgon
19KPotassium
20CaCalcium
21ScScandium
22TiTitanium
23VVanadium
24CrChromium
25Mnmanganese
26FeIron
27CoCobalt
28NiNickel
29CuCopper
30ZnZinc
31GaGallium
32GeGermanium
33AsArsenic
34SeSelenium
35BrBromine
36KrKrypton
37RbRubidium
38SrStrontium
39YYttrium
40ZrZirconium
41NbNiobium
42MoMolybdenum
43TcTechnetium
44RuRuthenium
45RhRhodium
46PdPalladium
47AgSilver
48CdCadmium
49InIndium
50SnTin
51SbAntimony
52TeTellurium
53IIodine
54XeXenon
55CsCesium
56BaBarium
57LaLanthanum
58CeCerium
59PrPraseodymium
60NdNeodymium
61PmPromethium
62SmSamarium
63EuEuropium
64GdGadolinium
65TbTerbium
66DyDysprosium
67HoHolmium
68ErErbium
69TmThulium
70YbYtterbium
71LuLutetium
72HfHafnium
73TaTantalum
74WTungsten
75ReRhenium
76OsOsmium
77IrIridium
78PtPlatinum
79AuGold
80HgMercury
81TlThallium
82PbLead
83BiBismuth
84PoPolonium
85AtAstatine
86RnRadon
87FrFrancium
88RaRadium
89AcActinium
90ThThorium
91PaProtactinium
92UUranium
93NpNeptunium
94PuPlutonium
95AmAmericium
96CmCurium
97BkBerkelium
98CfCalifornium
99EsEinsteinium
100FmFermium
101MdMendelevium
102NoNobelium
103LrLawrencium
104RfRutherfordium
105DbDubnium
106SgSeaborgium
107BhBohrium
108HsHassium
109MtMeitnerium
110DsDarmstadtium
111RgRoentgenium
112CnCopernicium
113NhNihonium
114FlFlerovium
115McMoscovium
116LvLivermorium
117TsTennessine
118OgOganeshttps://amzn.to/3kzdalfson
https://amzn.to/3kK32pW

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EARTH – A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

Earth – the blue planet

Earth is a Germanic word, and it means “the ground“, and it is at least 1000 years old . but all of the planets were named on greek and roman god and goddess (except earth).

Earth is about 4.5 billion years old and third planet from sun.

you could be spinning through space at just over 1,000 miles per hour.

Earth have different seasons because  Earth is tilted 23.4 degrees on its ‘axis.

The Earth’s diameter is about 12,800km.

Earth’s Core Is as Hot as the Sun’s Surface.

We live on the earth ,not in the earth.

About 70% of the Earth’s Surface is Covered in Water. Earth have only 3% fresh water and other 97% of it is salted.

About 100 lightning bolts strike earth every second.

About 5000 people dies due to drinking polluted water and about 100 million mammals dies by pollutionon earth.

Currently earth has about 3 trillion trees.

The earth’s population is about 7.6 to 7.8 billion.

many claims states that Nicolaus Copernicus was the man who discovered earth.

TO BE CONTINUE…….

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CLASSIFICATION OF BONES

BONES
The bones are the hard structure ,Which form the rigid framework the body.
Bone is a highly vascular mineralized connective tissue consisting of cell and dense intercellular organic matrix impregnated with organic salts. The organic material mainly consist of collagen fibers and form one third of the bone.
The inorganic material mainly consist of calcium phosphate and traces of other salts. It provides hardness and rigidity to the bone and makes it radiopaque in x-ray film.
FUNCTION

 Bone give shape and support to the body ,and resist any forms of stress.
 These provide surface for the attachment of muscle ,tendons,ligaments.
 These serve as levers for muscular actions.
 Bone marrow manufactures blood cells.
 Bone store 97%of the body calcium and phosphorus.
 Bone marrow contains reticuloendothelial cells which are phagocytic in nature and take part in immune responses of the body.
 The skull ,vertebral column and thoracic cage protect brain , spinal cord and thoracic and some abdominal viscera ,respectively.
 some bones around the nose contain large cavities filled with air (paranasal air sinuses which affect the timber of the voice).

CLASSIFICATION OF THE BONE

According to shape
According to the structure
According to the development

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE SHAPE

Depending on the size and shape. the bone are classified into 7 type.
• Long Bones
• Short Bones
• Flat Bones
• Irregular Bones
• Pneumatic Bones
• Sesamoid Bones
• Accessory Bones

Long bones

Long bone are those in which length exceeds the breadth and thickness.
The long bone are two types.
 Typical long bones
 Miniature/short long bone

Short bones

Short bones are small in size and usually cuboidal in shape , presenting six surfaces. These bones are found in wrist (carpal bone ) and foot (tarsal bone).

Flat bones

Flat bone are flat and shallow plate-like bone.
They form boundaries of certain body cavities. the example of the flat bone frontal, parietal ,occipital ,scapula, ribs, sternum.

Irregular bones

Irregular bone are highly irregular shape ,hip bone vertebrae bone forming base of skull.

Pneumatic bones

Pneumatic bone are a variety of irregular bone which contain air filled cavity. These bones are mainly located around the nasal cavity.
Example maxilla ,frontal ,sphenoid and ethmoid bones.

Sesamoid bones

These are bony nodules found embedded in the tendons or joint capsules.they have no periosteum and ossify after birth. Ex. Patella.

Accessory bones

These bones are not always present. These may occur as ununited epiphysis developed from extra centres of ossification. Ex. Sutural or wormain bones.

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE STRUCTURE

Microscopically the architecture of bone may be compact or cancellous.
Compact bone Compact bone is dense in texture like ivory ,but is extremely porous. It is best developed in the cortex of the long bone.
Cancellous bone The cancellous bone is a mesh work of bony spicules.it consist of interconnecting road and plates of bone called trabeculae.

CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE DEVELOPMENT

According to the process of the bone development. The bones are three type.
Membranous bones are developed by membranous ossification.
Cartilaginous bone are developed by endochondral ossification.
Membrano-cartilaginous bone developed by both membranous and endochondral ossification.

Parts of growing young long bone
 Epiphysis
 Diaphysis
 Metaphysis
 Epiphysis plate

Epiphysis these are ends of long bones which ossify from secondary centers.
Diaphysis It is the elongated part of bone between the metaphysis. It develops from primary ossification center.
Metaphysis the end of diaphysis toward the epiphyseal cartilage is called metaphysis.
Epiphysis plate Epiphysial plate separates epiphysis from metaphysis. Proliferation of the cells in this cartilaginous plate is responsible for lengthwise growth of a long bone.

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