Why are bones important?

Every one of us has a skeleton made up of many bones. We have 206 bones in our body.

Each bone has a function. Some bones offer protection to softer, more fragile parts of the body.

For example, the skull protects the brain, and two bony sockets in front of the skull protect the eyes.

The ribcage protects our heart and lungs, while the spinal column protects the delicate spinal cord.

Other bones, like the bones in our legs and arms, help us to move around by providing support for our muscles.

Bones store calcium while the bone marrow produces red and white blood cells.

Remember, if your body does not get enough calcium, it will take it from your bones making your bones weaker. So, drink your milk to build strong bones!

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BREATHING and its importance?

In this article we’ll discuss the process of breathing and why it is so important for us.

To understand the cycle and concept of breathing, we should look at the definition of breathing firstly.

Breathing supplies oxygen to the lungs and eliminates carbon dioxide

We breathe air to survive, which contains oxygen, which is necessary for life

Air is enter and exit from lungs through the nose.

Firstly air is taken in through the nostrils. This is the first step of breathing

Inhaled air takes moisture from mucus and warmed from underlying blood vessels , and filtered from nose hair.

After moistened, warmed and filtered air travels through the mouth and nasal passages.

It then passes through the trachea, and trachea is the connection between the throat and the lungs.

Trachea is divided into two bronchi, air is passes through one of them.

After passing into the many bronchioles, it finally arrives into some of the millions of tiny sacs called alveoli.

This is where gas exchange takes place – oxygen passes out of the air into the blood, and carbon dioxide passes out of the blood into the air in the alveoli.

Below the lungs, there is a flat powerful muscle called diaphragm.

The diaphragm contracts and relaxes, and as it does so, the volume of the chest increases and decreases to suck air into the lungs and then force it out.

To be continue……

ARRHYTHMIA

Arrhythmia

Arrhythmia is a disorder of the heart that affects the heart rate . An arrhythmia represent an irregular heartbeat. With this condition, a person’s heart can beat ———-

• too fast (tachycardia)
• too slow (bradycardia)
• too early (premature contraction)
• too erratically (fibrillation

Arrhythmias occur when the electrical impulse that regulate heartbeats are not working properly.

An irregular heartbeat can feel as a racing heart or fluttering.
Brain, lungs and other vital organs can be affected by the Arrhythmias.

Symptoms

• difficulty breathing
• chest pain
• Sweating
• dizziness or lightheadedness
• fainting, or almost fainting
• fatigue

Types

• Atrial fibrillation
• Atrial flutter
• Supraventricular tachycardia
• Ventricular tachycardia
• Ventricular fibrillation

Cause

• High blood pressure
• Hyperthyroidism
• Smoking
• Stress
• Alcohol abuse
• Diabetes
• Exercise
• Drinking too much coffee
• Heart disease, such as congestive

heart failure

• Some medications
• Structural changes in the heart

Treatment

• Antiarrhythmic drugs
• Surgery

Complications

• Cardiac arrest
• Heart failure
• Dementia
• Stroke

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PYELONEPHRITIS

Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is a kidney infection. It causes one and both kidneys are swell .

Pyelonephritis can be life-threatening. It can be infected by bacteria or virus.

The main function of kidney remove waste and take extra water from blood.

Kidney is a part of urinary system, which makes liquid waste (Urine) and remove it from your body.
Kidney filter the blood and make urine.

Ureters carry urine from kidney or through the bladder.
Bladder hold the urine before the micturition.

Urethra carries urine from your bladder to outside your body.
Bacteria entered through urethra begin the multiplying and spread up to the bladder and travel by ureter and they reach kidney or infected the kidney.

Symptoms

Symptoms are showing aproximetly within two days of infection.
• Nausea
• Vomiting
• Vomiting
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Fishy smelling urine
• Frequent urination
• Pus and blood in the urine
• Burning and painful urination

Infection complication

• Kidney damage
• Severe infection
• Septicaemia
• Problem in pregnancy

Cause

E. Coli a most common bacteria which is responsible for this. And other bacteria and virus can cause urinary infection.
This is rare that the bacteria enter skin and travel in the blood and reach the kidney.

GLAUCOMA

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease which can damage your eye’s optic nerve.

The optic nerve supplies visual information to the occipital lobe from eyes.

Occipital lobe is a part of brain which is responsible for vision system.

It usually occurs when fluid create in the front part of eye. That extra fluid increases the intraocular pressure (IOP) and damage the optic nerve.

Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness for people over 60 years old. But blindness from glaucoma can inhibit by early treatment.

Types

• Open – angle glaucoma
• Angle closure glaucoma
• Normal tension glaucoma
• Pigmentary glaucoma

Symptoms

Redness in the eye
Seeing coloured ring around the lights
Sudden blurred vision
Eye pain

Prevention

• Get regular dilated eye examination
• Take prescribe eye drops

Diagnosis

• Tonometry
• Pachymetry
• Gonioscopy
• Opthelmoscopy
• Confocal lesser scanning system

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EMPHYSEMA – Medical condition 002

Emphysema

Emphysema is a lungs disease.it is develops after many years of continue smoking. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are relate to a group of lung disease that known as COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Emphysema is a condition which is damage the walls of the air sacs (alveoli) of the lung. Alveoli are small, thin-walled air sacs. This is located in the end of the bronchial tubes deep inside the lungs.

A normal lungs is consist of about 300 million alveoli. when you are take a breath in the air and alveoli stretch drawing oxygen in and transporting it to the blood. When you exhale, the alveoli shrink, and carbon dioxide out of the body.

The alveoli and lung tissue are destroyed when the emphysema is develops .The tubes collapse and cause an Obstruction that trap air inside the lungs sometimes are fewer alveoli, less oxygen will be transport into the bloodstream.

cause

Any types of smoke such as cigarette, cigar is a major cause of emphysema. if you are inhel this types smoke, and you will suffer chronic diseases.

Symptoms

●Shortness of breath during physical activity.
• Coughing and wheezing.
• Long term mucus production.
• Fatigue

Treatment

• Pulmonary Rehabilitation
• Surgery and lung transplant
• Oxygen therapy

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